The exosomes were re-suspended with 6?mL RPMI-1640 medium avoiding light. cells. Finally, in vivo experiments were performed to verify the in vitro results. MiR-326 was decreased in HCC cells and enriched in M1 macrophage-derived exosomes. Up-regulating miR-326 would inhibit HCC cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion, and CD206 and NF-B expression and promoted apoptosis, and?inhibited the growth of HCC tumors 4?C for 2?h. The exosomes labeled with PKH67 were obtained by centrifugation at 120,0004?C for 2?h. The exosomes were re-suspended with 6?mL RPMI-1640 medium avoiding light. Then, the labeled exosomes were co-cultured with HCC cells for 12?h. After that, the culture medium was removed and washed with PBS for 3 times, 5?min/time, and the fluorescent-labeled exosomes which were not internally absorbed by HCC cells were thoroughly washed off. The exosomes were fastened with 4% paraformaldehyde and dyed with 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. After sealing, the fluorescence distribution was observed by a laser confocal microscope. Cell Grouping and Treatment HepG2 cells and SMMC-7721 cells were?seeded in the 12-well plate at 0.5C1??106 cells/well. With 50C60% confluence, cells were transfected with Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). HepG2 cells were distributed Gallic Acid into miR-326-mimic group (transfected with miR-326 mimic) and NC-mimic group (transfected with miR-326 mimic NC). SMMC-7721 cells were assigned into miR-326-inhibitor group (transfected with miR-326 inhibitor) and NC-inhibitor group (transfected with miR-326 inhibitor NC). miR-326-mimic, miR-326-inhibitor and their NCs were mixed with Lipofectamine 2000 for transfection. HepG2 cells and SMMC-7721 cells without any treatment were set as the blank group. miR-326-mimic, miR-326-inhibitor and their NC were devised and composed by Guangzhou?RibBio Co., Gallic Acid Ltd. (Guangzhou, China) (Table ?(Table11). Co-culture of M1 Macrophage-Derived Exosomes with HCC Cells The protein concentration of M1 macrophage-derived exosomes suspension was detected by BCA method, and the volume of corresponding exosomes suspension with 50?g protein was calculated. HepG2 cells and SMMC-7721 cells were seeded in 12-well plate at 1??105 cells/mL per well. HepG2 cells were distributed into 4 groups: control group (HepG2 cells not co-cultured with exosomes), exosomes (Exo) group (HepG2 cells co-cultured with M1 macrophages-derived exosomes), Exo-miR-326-mimic group (HepG2 Gallic Acid cells co-cultured with M1 macrophage-derived exosomes which transfected with miR-326 mimic), Exo-NC-mimic group (HepG2 cells co-cultured with M1 macrophage-derived exosomes which transfected with miR-326 mimic NC). SMMC-7721 cells were also assigned into 4 groups: blank group (SMMC-7721 cells not co-cultured with exosomes), Exo group (SMMC-7721 cells co-cultured with M1 macrophages-derived exosomes), Exo-miR-326-inhibitor group (SMMC-7721 cells co-cultured with M1 macrophage-derived exosomes which transfected with miR-326 inhibitor), Exo-NC-inhibitor group (SMMC-7721 cells co-cultured with M1 macrophage-derived exosomes which transfected with miR-326 inhibitor NC). 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) Assay The cells were detached with trypsin and seeded CACN2 on 96-well plate with the cell density of 4??104 cells per well. The culture medium was abandoned after culturing 12, 24, 36, 48, 60?h, respectively. Incubated with 500?L 0.5?g/L MTT solution, the cells were appended Gallic Acid with 200?L dimethyl sulfoxide solution, triturated and hatched. Optical density (OD, 490?nm) values were measured by a microplate reader. Colony Formation Assay Cultured for 24?h and detached with trypsin, the cells were seeded in a 35-mm small dish with 300 cells per dish. The solution was replaced every 3 d. After 10 d of culture, the cells were fixed with 40?g/L?1 paraformaldehyde and dyed with 1?g/L?1 crystal violet solution and dried. Colony number (more than 50 cells) was computed under a microscope. Transwell Assay Cells (1??105) were suspended with 200?L blank culture media. Experiments were conducted in conformity with the instruction of Transwell chamber (Corning Glass Works, Corning, N.Y., USA) (matrigel was needed for invasion experiment, but not for migration experiment). RPIM 1640 Gallic Acid (10% FBS, 600?L) was added into the lower chamber. The upper and lower chambers.