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Also, the out-patient reimbursement prices (Kassenpreis) usually exceeded the hospital prices

Also, the out-patient reimbursement prices (Kassenpreis) usually exceeded the hospital prices. As shown in Number?1, the smallest difference between the official hospital list price and the out-patient prices was observed for the high-price product rituximab 500mg (reimbursement price: +6% and pharmacy retail price: +32% compared to the hospital list price) and the largest difference for any generic version of amlodipin 5mg (reimbursement price: +58% and pharmacy retail price: +106%). Discussion Our study was the 1st price survey undertaken for medicines used in private hospitals in Austria. a common cardiovascular medicine). For eight on-patent medicines (indications: oncology, anti-inflammatory, neurology-multiple sclerosis and blood) actual hospital medicine prices equaled the list prices (seven medicines) or were lower (one medicine) in four private hospitals, whereas one hospital usually reported higher actual prices due to the software of a wholesale mark-up. The actual hospital prices of seven medicines (cardiology and immunomodulation) were below the official hospital prices in all private hospitals; of these all cardiovascular medicines were provided free-of-charge. Hospital prices were always lower than out-patient prices (pharmacy retail price online and reimbursement price). Summary The results suggest little headroom for private hospitals to work out price reductions for monopoly products, i.e. medicines with no restorative alternative. Discount rates and cost-free provision (loss leaders) look like granted for products of tactical importance for suppliers, e.g. cardiovascular medicines, whose treatment tends to be continued in main care after discharge of the patient. original product, common; in case of more than one generic, numbering of the generics (G1, G2). 2 Equals the ex-factory price for out-patient medicines. No range, as this is the same in all private hospitals. 3 The (actual) price or amount paid by a hospital (or hospital pharmacy) in order to take delivery of particular unit of medicines. The price excludes the value added tax (VAT). 4 The price charged by retail pharmacies to the general public. It includes any pharmacy mark-up or dispensing fee. The net price excludes VAT. 5 Reimbursement price paid by Austrian sickness funds, called Kassenpreis. However, seven of the selected products are not included in the out-patient reimbursement list (Erstattungskodex, EKO). Therefore the indicated out-patient prices are rather of theoretic character. Open Y-29794 oxalate in a separate window Number 1 Price variations of oncology and cardiovascular medicines between in the hospital and out-patient industries. Price assessment across medicines The sample of the 15 medicines diverse from high-priced medicines (primarily in oncology) with ex-factory prices (established hospital list prices) per unit of several hundreds of Euros to Y-29794 oxalate low-priced medicines around 0.25 Euro (in cardiology). The highest priced medicine of the sample was rituximab 500 mg with an ex-factory price per unit of 1 1,515.- Euro, whereas a common version of amlodipin 5mg (priced 0.20 Euro per tablet) was in the additional end of the range. Tpo The actual hospital prices were lower; some medicines were provided cost-free to all private hospitals. Actual hospital prices compared to standard hospital prices In the case of seven medicines (trastuzumab 150 mg, rituximab 500 mg, imatinib 400 mg, etanercept 50 mg, infliximab 100 mg, Interferon beta-1, clopidogrel 75 Y-29794 oxalate mg), the actual hospital prices equaled the hospital list prices, or they were, in one hospital, even higher than standard hospital list prices due to the software of a wholesale mark-up. For docetaxel 12 mg 80 mg/2 ml this hospital, supplied by a wholesaler, also reported a 2% higher actual hospital price compared to the standard list price, whereas the additional four private hospitals had lower actual hospital prices than standard list prices. Three private hospitals reported receiving rebates in kind (i.e. for 20 vials they get one free). For the remaining seven products, the actual hospital prices were lower than the official hospital prices in all private hospitals: two medicines for immunomodulation (immunoglobulins 100 mg/ml in two different pharmaceutical forms) experienced a 15%-27% lower price. Five medicines (all cardiology medicines: amlodipin, simvastatin, atorvastatin) were provided cost-free to the private hospitals, individually of whether they were initial products or generics. While for high-priced oncology Y-29794 oxalate medicines private hospitals could not accomplish any discount rates, cardiology medicines of the sample were provided for free (Number?1). Price.